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Башенные часы и наружные часы

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  #1  
Старый 20.03.2017, 18:46
mguryev mguryev вне форума   Автор этой темы
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Пирамидальные часы

Коллеги,

Вот такое письмо с просьбой о помощи пришло из Англии. Пожалуйста, если есть конструктивные идеи, поделитесь!

Михаил Гурьев, Эрмитаж


Hello again Mikhail,

With your help our book on the turret clocks of T. Cooke & Sons of York has now been published. We were able to contact the museum where the clock is now and they sent some really good photos of the clock and the museum. Please take a look at pages 217 and 218 from the book which feature the clock. We are very grateful for your help.

I wonder if you can help us locate another clock. This one is a lot closer to you, as I believe it went to St Petersburg. The clock was made by Richard Roberts and was one of only two of this design ever made. It was called the Alpha Clock and has a frame described as a quadrangular pyramid. One of the clocks was exhibited at the Great Exhibition of 1851 and won a medal. This is believed to now be in a church in Scotland. The other was exported to St Petersburg. I’m afraid that is all I know of its destination. I wonder if you or any of your colleagues has ever seen it or heard of it, or may be able to tell me if it still exists, and where it is.

It may well have been lost with the passage of almost 170 years, but I am hoping it is still safe somewhere.

Best wishes,

Darlah.
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  #2  
Старый 04.05.2017, 13:12
Аватар для Oled
Oled Oled вне форума  
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Михаил Петрович, добрый день!

Рад видеть Вас на форуме.

К сожалению, упоминаний, свидетельств об использовании этого механизма в Петербурге пока не встречал. Сам по себе механизм интересен не столько формой платин, сколько усовершенствованиями, привнесенными манчестерским механиком и изобретателем Ричардом Робертсом в саму конструкцию башенных часов.

Вот статья, опубликованная в 1851 году в "The Illustrated London News", где детально описываются все преимущества нового часового механизма Робертса:

"Roberts Alpha Clock: We have already stated that this is one of the greatest novelties in the Horological Section of the Exhibition and forms a conspicuous object in the Western Gallery.

It differs in many particulars from the church clocks as constructed in which the works are generally arranged between parallel bars of iron united together by stretchers to constitute framing and mounted on a frame or a table usually of wood which some cases is not very substantial. The framing of the Alpha Clock is of pyramidal form resembling the letter A hence its name. As framing extends to the floor it requires no other support thus stability is attained a circumstance of the utmost importance, especially when as in the present instance the pendulum is suspended the clock frame itself. Another advantage to be noticed is superior adaptation to the decreasing sizes of the wheels in the trains: the largest wheels occupying the lowest place in the frame (which, by the old arrangement, is lost room) and considerable of room resulting from the wheels being placed in vertical of horizontal series.

The journals of the iron shafts in this clock are case-hardened and those of steel are hardened and tempered and all subsequently made perfectly true by the process of lapping in lathe. The bearings are of cast iron, fitted to their respective places with bolts and steady pins in such a manner, as to admit of being taken out and replaced by ene man. The wheels and pinions those in the escapement are of iron with the teeth cast on them, which having the scale or crust unremoved, causes their work to be done without much friction, as the scale or crust is very hard.

The barrels are entirely dispensed with being superseded by pulleys from each of the endless chain is passed over a pulley to the weight and also another pulley to a counter weight, by which arrangement one weight made to actuate both the going and striking trains and consequently any mechanism for maintaining power, whilst the clock is wound up is rendered unnecessary. In the accompanying are shown the arrangements by which one weight is made to actuate third train for striking the quarters. The same object may be by using a rope instead of a chain.

By dispensing with the barrel, Mr. Roberts has obviated the difficulty which has hitherto existed of placing the clock in the best position in reference to the room and the dials - a desideratum which none but those who have had experience in fixing church or turret clocks can properly appreciate. The pendulum rod is of simple construction and it is believed that the arrangement for counteracting the injurious effects of change of temperature upon it will prove very nearly an approximation to complete compensation. The experiments for ascertaining the effects of change of temperature upon the different metals usually employed for the purpose were made by Mr. Roberts himself.

The pendulum bob is in form a circular segment whos centre is the point of suspension. In plan it resembles a boat constructed to pass through the water in either direction with the smallest amount of resistance. Its length in the direction of the plane of oscillation is considerable and consequently its weight is distributed less over the rod than usual. The escapement acts upon the pendulum only once during every double oscillation and then leaves it to vibrate as independently of the train as can probably be done with advantage and the escape wheel being allowed to act on the pendulum for a portion only of the time, it occupies in ascending from the vertical such arrangement it is presumed cannot interfere injuriously with the effect of gravitation upon the pendulum.

The escape wheel impels the pendulum by means of a spring adjustable by a screw to regulate the necessary amount of oscillation, which shall be given to the pendulum, this spring prevents injury being done to the escape wheel should the pendulum be drawn towards it when the wheel is not in its proper position, the spring also prevents the action of the escape wheel from materially interfering with the smoothness of the oscillations of the pendulum.

The detents for locking the escape wheel are upon a spring attached to the framing and the pendulum is independent of them during a considerable portion of its oscillation while the pallet levers are considerably longer than the radius of the locking pinion, consequently the power required to unlock is so small as not to interfere materially with the correct performance of the pendulum. The remontoire is of a simple and inexpensive kind and admits of great latitude in its adaptation to the pendulum when suspended from a wall.

In order to render the entire clock visible at a distance the hands are made broader than is usual in public clocks generally. The shafts of the clock hands are made of gun metal to avoid the injurious effects of oxidation and are of extra strength, so as to prevent being strained by gales of wind. The wheels of the dial work are made of cast iron and sufficiently large in diameter to keep the hands steady.

The striking apparatus is we believe new as respects the use of gutta percha for the hammer and the mode of regulating the interval of time between the blows is also new and effects that object more perfectly than is done by the fan the velocity, of which is sensibly accelerated whilst 12 o clock is being struck. By dispensing with the fan, which ordinarily requires more power to work it than the hammer and using a small hammer whose velocity is greater than usual Mr Roberts produces as full a tone from a given bell with only one fifth the power required by the old mode of striking.

This clock has been sent to the Exhibition without any other adornment than that of paint which is quite necessary for the prevention of oxidation and the parts of wrought and cast iron respectively are distinguished from each ether the former being coated with blue and the latter with bronze colour.

Mr. Bennett in addition to the articles already mentioned exhibits in the Western Gallery and not far from the Exeter clock his improved turret clock which forms a sort of companion to Mr. Roberts Alpha on the other side Shepherd's electric clock having three faces one on the exterior of the south side of the Transept: one in front of the South Transept Gallery and the third in front of the Western Gallery, has already been described and pictorially represented in the ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS."

Приложил рисунок хорошего качества из альбома R.S.Burn "The Illustrated London Architectural, Engineering, & Mechanical Drawing-book: For the Use of Schools, Students, and Artisans", 1853.

Еще интересная информация: согласно рекламе манчестерской фирмы "John Bailey & Co.", опубликованной в 1861 году, они, как производители часовых механизмов, также изготавливали и "Alpha clock" по патенту Р. Робертса. Так что, вероятно, всего механизмов было сделано больше, чем два.

Некролог о кончине Р.Робертса был опубликован в "The Horological Journal" 1 апреля 1864 г. и также содержит много полезной информации.

В завершение надо сказать, что некоторые английские производители впоследствии использовали эту форму платин - к примеру, механизмы фирмы "Smith & sons", Clerkenwell"конца 19 века также имели платины в форме буквы "А" (приложил фото), но это совсем другие часы...

С уважением,
Олег Синегубкин
Историк часового дела, Москва.
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  #3  
Старый 19.05.2017, 14:33
mguryev mguryev вне форума   Автор этой темы
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Спасибо за информацию, рад знакомству!

С уважением,

М.Гурьев
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